General Assembly President, with Focus on People, Vows to Prioritize Peace, 'Do Even More' in Tackling Myriad Challenges
Following a week of clarion calls for diplomacy, promises to build a more equitable world order and impassioned accounts of such crises as war and climate change, General Assembly President Miroslac Lajcak (Slovakia) closed the seventy-second annual general debate today with a vow to do even more to resolve those myriad challenges.
Over the course of the debate, we heard about people running from gunshots or the exploding force of bombs, people living for a week on the same amount some of us spend on a cup of coffee, said Mr. Lajcak. People around the world were being forced to choose between risking their lives to stay, or to flee. They wondered when the next hurricane would hit or if their village would be under water in the coming decades. Emphasizing that the Assembly's session would respond to calls for prioritizing peace, prevention and diplomacy, he said more must be done to ensure that human rights, gender equality and the rule of law were the norm � not the exception � and underlined the importance of looking beyond labels such as refugee or migrant to see, simply, people.
While speakers had reaffirmed their commitment to the United Nations and a global system based on multilateralism and dialogue, he said some had nevertheless noted that the world was changing rapidly, and not all messages delivered had been positive. Many criticized both other nations and the United Nations itself. This is part of the package, he said, and it is your right to do so. However, he urged delegates to remember that differences in unilateral positions did not prevent multilateral agreement. The people we all represent  need us to focus on action, now more than ever.
During six days of debate during which speakers criticized both the United Nations and one another, some expressed particular concern over allegations levied against their countries, including charges of human rights abuses and sponsoring terrorist groups. Meanwhile, several representatives focused on the global economic and political systems � including within the United Nations � as unfair and unrepresentative, with many stressing that the Organization's reform must include a reorientation of the Security Council's membership.
Jorge Arreaza, Venezuela's Minister for Foreign Affairs, echoing former President Hugo Chavez's famous 2006 declaration that the stink of sulphur was in the air at the Assembly, said President Donald J. Trump of the United States had last week defamed the United Nations by issuing threats of war and the total destruction of another Member State. Venezuela's own people had been directly menaced by President Trump, including through military threats and the imposition of unilateral sanctions intended to make them suffer and achieve a change in Government. Member States must respond to those illegal actions through solidarity, he stressed, also condemning the United States sanctions against Iran and the Russian Federation, and noting that its continued criminal blockade against Cuba revealed that the direction the new winds of United States unilateralism are blowing.
Also taking the floor to rebut accusations was Iran's representative, who exercised his right of reply to address remarks by his counterparts from the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. While the former two countries had long employed interventionist policies that brought about death and destruction across the region, they had the audacity to accuse Iran of supporting terrorism, he said, calling claims by Bahrain's delegate desperate efforts to cover up that Government's human rights violations and justify its blatant trampling of its own people.
Myanmar's representative, also exercising the right of reply, condemned irresponsible remarks about the situation in Rakhine State. Accusations of ethnic cleansing must not be used lightly, he stressed, noting that the exodus from Rakhine State � not just affecting Muslims � could largely be attributed to the scorched earth strategies of terrorist groups. He assured Member States that the Government was working to restore normalcy and prioritizing humanitarian assistance, and that it was fully committed to resolving the situation and implementing recommendations by the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State.
Among those speakers spotlighting challenges embedded in the United Nations itself was Mozambique's delegate, who stressed that unregulated migration and massive refugee flows were in large part due to unresolved crises or poorly settled conflicts. Lack of consensus among Security Council members to initiate text-based negotiations on reforming that body constrained the ability of Governments to enhance its credibility by making it more representative, he said, calling the Council a fundamental pillar for the successful implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Striking a similar tone, Angola's representative also voiced support for the Council to better reflect today's realities. In line with the common African position on that issue, known as the Ezulwini Consensus, he said the number of permanent members should be increased to ensure a fair geographic balance. It is unfair that the African continent, which accounts for almost 40 per cent of the Member States of the United Nations, is not represented among the permanent members in the main body in charge of maintaining peace and security in the world, he stressed.
Also speaking today were the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Uruguay and the Secretary for Foreign Relations of the Holy See.
Representatives of New Zealand, Turkmenistan, Peru, Norway, Timor-Leste and Nicaragua also participated.
Also speaking in exercise of the right of reply were the representatives of Indonesia, India, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Pakistan.
The Assembly will reconvene at 10 a.m. on Tuesday, 26 September, to hold a high-level plenary meeting to commemorate and promote the International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons.
RODOLFO NIN NOVOA, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Uruguay, said strengthened international coordination bodies were needed more than ever, urging respect for the principle of sovereignty. The United Nations must become stronger, and the Assembly must gain greater prominence. Uruguay's foreign policy was based on the pillars of democracy, human rights, the defence of international law, and pursuit of peace. Those principles had retained prominence despite the changes of political power in the country, he said, underscoring Uruguay's commitment to making its voice heard on the international stage. Unprecedented violence, arms proliferation, and the increase in terrorism, cyberattacks, hunger and climate change required a strong commitment from the international community. Today, millions were affected by armed conflict with hundreds of thousands killed and millions displaced. We should not get used to standing idly by, he stressed.
He urged all countries to increase efforts to combat human trafficking, and ensure development and social growth, citing inequality and the persistence of international forces as drivers of those threats. He expressed support for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals, noting that Uruguay had recently presented its Voluntary National Report to the Economic and Social Council's High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. He expressed deep concern over the threat of terrorism, stressing that arms trafficking and trade had contributed to civilian deaths. Thus, he voiced support for the historic Arms Trade Treaty and related international instruments. The Security Council's permanent members had produced 74 per cent of arms exported between 2011 and 2015, and military spending continued to grow. Many needs could have been addressed if those resources had been redirected to social and economic development.
Without diplomacy, the consequences of nuclear arms proliferation could be devastating, he said. Yet, nuclear Powers continued to update their stockpiles, and more than nine countries were in a state of high alert, with arsenals ready to be used just a few minutes after a threat is announced. Welcoming the international Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, which Uruguay had just signed, he urged other Member States to do the same. He condemned recent launches and tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and called on the United States to avoid a verbal escalation of violence. Those dynamics of antagonism could make it impossible to turn back. He expressed hope that an instrument would be negotiated to end attacks on civilians and humanitarian workers, reaffirming Uruguay's support for the United Nations zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers. He welcomed progress made in the peace process in Colombia and rejected the United States blockade against Cuba.
PAUL RICHARD GALLAGHER, Secretary for Foreign Relations of the Holy See, said focusing on people meant not only protecting them from heinous crimes but also placing them above all national and geopolitical interests. It also meant safeguarding their dignity, human rights and fundamental freedoms, especially the rights to life and freedom of religion from which all other rights flowed and which provided the common foundation for peace, security and human development.
He went on to say that the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement on climate change were effective measures to eradicate the evils and indignities faced by many today. Pope Francis had called the Agenda an important sign of hope, but also had pressed the world to ensure that the legal commitments of that accord and others were fulfilled. Compliance with such instruments could help countries work together for peace and avoid the dangerous game of exchanging threats.
Environmental degradation must be urgently addressed, he said, stressing: Any harm done to the environment is harm done to humanity, of today and tomorrow. While voicing support for efforts to facilitate obligations under the responsibility to protect concept, he said without a legal framework and respect for the rule of law, application of that principle would not be feasible. Voicing concern over the situations in Yemen, Syria and Venezuela, among other places, and describing corruption and terrorism as other challenges to be addressed, he said that ultimately, people could only be protected if there was durable peace. Lamenting the situations of migrants and refugees fleeing war and other challenges in Nigeria, Myanmar and Somalia, he reiterated Pope Francis' call on countries to welcome, protect and integrate people fleeing such adverse conditions. There was also a need to address the causes forcing people to leave, including persecution and both economic and environmental hardship.
ANTA�NIO GUMENDE (Mozambique) said development partners must honour and scale up the funding pledges they had made in the areas of disaster prevention and climate change resilience, adaptation and mitigation. A robust and efficient United Nations system, and its partnerships with regional bodies, could play a catalytic role in accelerating national development and strengthening democratic political systems. He reaffirmed Mozambique's commitment to the 2030 Agenda, emphasizing that a focus on people had always been at the core of its national development efforts.
Unregulated migration and massive refugee flows were in large part due to unresolved crises or poorly settled conflict situations, he said, urging the international community to redouble efforts and build consensus to prevent senseless loss of life. He conveyed Mozambique's concern over the risk of nuclear confrontation on the Korean Peninsula, and the lack of progress on Western Sahara's decolonization. Lack of consensus among Security Council members to initiate text-based negotiations on reforming that body constrained Member States' ability to enhance its credibility by making it more representative, he said, calling the Council a fundamental pillar for the success of the 2030 Agenda.
ISMAEL ABRAA�O GASPAR MARTINS (Angola) voiced support for the Secretary-General's reform priorities, especially for the Security Council, so it would better reflect reality. In line with the common African position on that issue, known as the Ezulwini Consensus, he said the number of permanent members should be increased to ensure a fair geographical balance. It is unfair that the African continent, which accounts for almost 40 per cent of the Member States of the United Nations, is not represented among the permanent members in the main body in charge of maintaining peace and security in the world, he stressed. Emphasizing the importance of multilateralism with recognition of the legitimate interests of all States, he described Angola's role in resolving threats to peace in the Great Lakes region, where it had engaged in diplomacy in the context of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region.
Despite advances made by those negotiations, he warned that the path towards stabilizing that part of Africa was long, and that the parties bore the main responsibility for ending violence. Urging the international community to support those efforts, he said the United Nations should also become more engaged in the fight against terrorism by combating its causes, such as social crisis and institutional instability. The case of Libya is the blatant example of this reality, he said. Outlining Angola's efforts to implement the Sustainable Development Goals, and underscoring its commitment to the Paris Agreement on climate change, he said the newly-elected Government would focus on economic development with special attention to combating poverty, reducing inequalities, fighting unemployment and improving governance. The promotion and protection of human rights was another priority, which was why Angola had submitted its candidature for Human Rights Council membership in the body's upcoming October elections.
CRAIG HAWKE (New Zealand), describing his country as an outward-looking nation that relied on global stability for trade and the safety of its people, said recent activities in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea were a most pressing challenge, as Pyongyang continued to disregard Security Council resolutions and the well-being of its own people. The Council must take a strong, unified response, and he voiced hope that tensions would be defused and a path to dialogue found. Recalling that New Zealand had, last week, signed the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, he went on to describe efforts to address the humanitarian situation in Syria. Alongside Spain, Jordan and Egypt, New Zealand had managed to renew and improve cross-border access arrangements. However, it had consistently raised concerns over the Security Council's failure to bring about a political solution to that crisis.
In Iraq, New Zealand Defence Force personnel were working to strengthen the Iraqi forces in their battle against Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da'esh), he said. While strides had been made, the group's influence was not limited to Iraq and Syria, and defeating it in those countries would not spell its end. New Zealand was working with others in its own region to ensure that such groups did not inflict similar suffering elsewhere. He described New Zealand's contributions to stability in Afghanistan as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Resolute Support Mission, noting that Afghanistan's future ultimately lay in the hands of its Government and people. Also expressing strong support for the Paris Agreement, he said small island developing States faced unique challenges and vulnerabilities and pledged to assist them in the sustainable management of the ocean, including by making substantial investments to improve sustainable fisheries in the Pacific and reduce illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. He added that New Zealand had taken a lead role in advocating international reform of fossil fuel subsidies.
AKSOLTAN ATAEVA (Turkmenistan) said global cooperation was the key to resolving such issues as hunger, terrorism and the drug trade, among others. Terrorism, in particular, threatened to undermine global efforts towards prosperity and was among the gravest menaces. Voicing support for the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its implementation at all levels, and for the Ashgabat Declaration on the implementation of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Framework in Central Asia, she recalled that the Organization's Preventive Diplomacy Centre in Central Asia � based in Turkmenistan � marked its tenth anniversary this year. Her country would submit a related resolution to the Assembly's First Committee (Disarmament and International Security) during the session.
Describing the Sustainable Development Goals as another critical area for cooperation, she outlined Turkmenistan's national focus on sport for the achievement of peace and development and said Turkmenistan would host the upcoming Seventh International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials responsible for sport. Underlining the importance of Assembly resolutions 69/217 and 70/217 on sustainable transport, she recalled that the United Nations global conference on that issue had been held in Ashgabat in 2016 and said Turkmenistan would submit a resolution on that topic as it related to the Goals of the Second Committee (Economic and Financial). Turkmenistan would also be the next chair of the International Energy Charter, working to develop new global policies on sustainable energy, and it invited States to take part in the group's next conference to be held later this year in Ashgabat.
GUSTAVO MEZA-CUADRA (Peru) called for more inclusive globalization based on multilateralism and dialogue. Peru was working to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and implementing policies to eradicate poverty, with a focus on access to water and hygiene among its priorities. Strengthening institutions and eliminating impunity had been identified as key tools for mitigating corruption. Protecting democracy and human rights in Latin America was a necessity, he said, expressing profound concern over the worsening crisis in Venezuela. Negotiation was the only path to stability in that country and any attempts to intervene would violate the United Nations Charter.
In addition, he said Peru was preparing to take its non-permanent seat on the Security Council for the term 2018 2019. The Council would provide the platform for Peru to more actively promote nuclear non-proliferation, he said, condemning the Democratic People's Republic of Korea's nuclear ambitions. The Government would work to foster debate that would lead to the peaceful resolution of tensions on the Korean Peninsula, he assured. Stressing that borderless threats such as terrorism and climate change posed clear challenges to development, he advocated adherence to international mechanisms designed to mitigate those threats in broader efforts to foster stability.
JORGE ARREAZA, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Venezuela, said that while the General Assembly was the home of peace, its podium � a sacred space for people who worked for global understanding and equality � had last week been defamed by the representative of a Power intent on imposing its rules of war, suffering and pain on other nations. As Venezuela's former President Hugo Chavez had famously said in 2006, the stink of sulphur was in the air at the podium, and this is still the case. Severe unilateral threats to peace and security remained, with President Donald J. Trump of the United States having threatened war and the total destruction of another Member State, judging as if he was emperor. In a paradoxical gesture of brazenness and hypocrisy, he had claimed those words were based on the principles of peace and sovereignty. Venezuela's own people had been directly threatened by President Trump, including by military threats and the imposition of unilateral sanctions intended to make its people suffer and achieve a change in Government. While Venezuela would always deal with the United States and other nations through mutual respect, it was nevertheless prepared to defend itself in any way.
Urging the United States to neutralize its bellicose pretentions and reverse its threats to multilateralism, he recalled that, in March, the Non Aligned Movement had condemned the imposition of unilateral coercive measures by some States in flagrant violation of the United Nations Charter. Indeed, Member States must respond to those illegal actions through solidarity. He condemned all such actions against Iran and the Russian Federation, as well as the criminal blockade against Cuba which demonstrated the direction the new winds of United States unilateralism are blowing. Expressing support for dialogue to resolve the current nuclear crisis, he rejected claims that Venezuela should not be allowed to serve on the Human Rights Council. It was the United States, not his country, that did not deserve to belong to that body, as the former was responsible for unjustified wars, clandestine jails, unilateral coercive measures and unacceptable migratory polices. The United States was also the only country that had ever used nuclear weapons.
Recalling that in 2003 the United States had invaded Iraq based on false claims that it possessed weapons of mass destruction, he said it now sought to build a wall on its southern border and reduce the flow of critical remittances around the world. The United States had failed to ratify 72 per cent of global human rights treaties and lacked national systems to protect human rights within its own borders. Abuses being committed in the United States included the killing of African Americans by police officers, large numbers of homeless people and gender discrimination. That country had also fabricated reasons to launch wars in Libya and Syria. Thanking the Secretary-General for his good offices in the territorial dispute between Venezuela and Guyana, which he hoped would soon be peacefully resolved, he welcomed progress being made in Colombia's peace process but voiced concern about drug production taking place there. Venezuela is not a drug producing country, he stressed, adding that countries accounting for the largest demand for drugs were most responsible for that phenomenon.
Voicing solidarity with those affected by recent natural disasters, he said such events had made millions of people victims of a war they did not choose, stressing: Let us not change the climate, let us change the system. The responsibility must not fall on developing countries alone; it was especially unfair for the United States � the world's largest emitter � to withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Venezuela, subject to constant aggression from hegemonic Powers that sought to seize its natural resources, had suffered numerous attacks, including most recently four months of induced political violence intended to displace President Nicolas Maduro. However, those attempts had been neutralized by the Venezuelan people through their election of a National Constitutional Assembly aimed at restoring peace and stability. The country had always employed social dialogue to deepen its democracy and he welcomed the decision of the opposition to return to that path and engage in future elections. Finally, he said United Nations reform must aim to create a more equitable world order free from hegemonic aggression, and provide people with the highest degree of happiness, peace and stability.
TORE HATTREM (Norway) called for the consolidation of development progress. Stability required common interests, security, adherence to international law and the rejection of protectionism, he said, stressing that investment in human rights propelled sustainable development. He pointed to the Colombian peace process as proof that inclusive approaches to peace could succeed, noting that those efforts required the active participation of women and greater investment in education. He said that institutional and economic development could underpin conflict resolution.
There could be no development without security, he asserted. The resolution of humanitarian crises called for greater commitment from the Security Council. He encouraged support for Norway's candidacy for a seat on the Council during its 2021 2022 term, welcoming the Secretary-General's vision for the Organization. However, the United Nations must be realigned to improve its ability to prevent conflict. Mitigating climate change and protecting the oceans also called for greater inclusion, and in that context, he urged all small island developing countries to join forces to promote healthy, sustainable oceans.
MARIA HELENA PIRES, (Timor-Leste), expressed gratitude to the United Nations which had helped end the bloodshed in her country and paved the way for national independence. She also thanked the Secretary-General, then Prime Minister of Portugal, who had greatly contributed to the self-determination of the Timorese people and been decisive in Timor-Leste becoming a success story. As global integration was fundamental for peacebuilding and reconciliation, Timor-Leste valued deeply its friendship with Australia and Indonesia, as well as its relations with neighbouring Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Stable and solid institutions were essential to development, which was why Timor-Leste had created the G7 plus group in 2009, bringing 20 fragile States into cooperation with development partners. The impact of climate change on food security was at the core of her country's concerns, making implementation of the Paris Agreement an inalienable responsibility of all states.
She said Timor-Leste had prioritized the fight against transnational crime, and more broadly, called for an end to human trafficking and sexual exploitation, and all forms of terrorism, extremism and radicalism, stressing that women must play an important role in development. She called on all parties to respect international conventions and resolutions on the denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and engage in dialogue to reduce tensions. She welcomed International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) findings on the absence of non-compliance with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, more broadly calling decolonization the greatest victory in human history. However, that process was not yet complete as the right of people in Western Sahara to exercise self-determination had been postponed. The United Nations must seek an urgent solution to that issue, work to end the war in the Middle East and lift the embargo against Cuba.
MARA�A RUBIALES DE CHAMORRO (Nicaragua) said the 2030 Agenda would have no meaning without political will and a commitment to solidarity. A re-foundation of the United Nations was urgently needed, including reform of the Security Council to ensure that its composition and function reflected geopolitical and economic realities. She called for more dynamic negotiations in that regard, adding that a negotiating text should be elaborated to ensure reforms advanced during the current session. Ambitious action was also urgently needed to combat climate change. Developed countries must change their unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, and fulfil financial and technology transfer commitments. It was painful to see a revival of United States measures against Cuba, she said, rejecting threats of the use of force against Venezuela by the President of the United States. She expressed best wishes for the successful implementation of Colombia's peace agreement, and expressed solidarity with the peoples of Puerto Rico, Western Sahara and the Government and people of Syria.
Expressing great concern about the situation in the Korean Peninsula, she called for negotiations leading to the Peninsula's denuclearization and reunification. Unilateral coercive measures must be repealed if the Sustainable Development Goals were to be achieved, she continued. It was imperative that no one be left behind and that included the 23 million people of Taiwan, which had the capacity to contribute to a wide range of United Nations programmes. She went on to condemn the Nicaragua Investment Conditionality Act (NICA) of 2016, a bill before the United States House of Representatives, saying it would block her country's access to poverty-fighting funding from international organizations. Nicaragua hoped that the United States Congress would reject such legislation and approve compliance with a judgement by the International Court of Justice in The Hague ordering the United States to compensate Nicaraguans for acts of terrorism committed during the Reagan administration of former President Ronald Reagan.
Right of Reply
The representative of Myanmar, speaking in exercise of the right of reply, condemned irresponsible remarks made by Member States regarding the situation in Rakhine State. Accusations of ethnic cleansing must not be used lightly. The exodus from Rakhine State, not just affecting Muslims, could largely be attributed to scorched earth strategies employed by terrorist groups in the region. He assured the Government was working to restore normalcy, prioritizing humanitarian assistance. Myanmar was fully committed to resolving the situation and implementing recommendations by the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State.
The representative of Iran replied to remarks by his counterparts from the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, and echoed by others, saying the former had made unfounded allegations against his country, resorting to the same lies as in past sessions. While the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia had long employed interventionist policies that brought about death and destruction across the region, they had the audacity to accuse Iran of supporting terrorism. The three islands of Abu Musa, Greater Tunb and the Lesser Tunb were part of Iran's sovereign territory, he stressed, rejecting claims to the contrary. In line with its policy of good neighbourliness, Iran was willing to engage in discussions on those matters, but its sovereignty was not negotiable. Noting that the term Persian Gulf was the appropriate name for the body of water in question, he responded to accusations by Bahrain's representative as desperate efforts to cover up that Government's human rights violations and justify its blatant trampling of its own people.
The representative of Indonesia, responding to remarks by the representatives of Vanuatu and Solomon Islands concerning Papua and West Papua, and echoed by others, said their false allegations were economically motivated. Those countries were blindfolded and refused to understand that the provinces had enjoyed great strides in economic growth and development. They were growing at 9.21 per cent, the fastest in Indonesia, and remained integral and sovereign parts of her country. Those making such claims were motivated by individuals with separatist agendas to exploit the issue of human rights, she said, asking why those concerns � if accurate � had not been raised in the appropriate forum of the Human Rights Council. Stressing that those countries' own human rights records were not perfect, she said illegal attempts to dismember the sovereignty and territorial integrity of a Member State violated the principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter. We cannot let this happen.
The representative of India said remarks by her counterpart from Pakistan had attempted to divert attention from that country's actions. Referring to Pakistan as a hub of terrorism, she said there had been a concerted effort to mislead the international community. Pakistan had used falsehoods to support its own false narrative. Given those actions, she was forced to display a real photo of Indian citizens tortured and killed by Pakistani terrorists. Such treatment of Indians in Jammu and Kashmir portrayed the reality of the situation, she said, adding that the true face of Pakistan was not hidden from anyone.
The representative of the United Arab Emirates, to remarks by her counterpart from Iran, referred to three disputed islands as an integral part of her country. She called on the international community to help resolve that dispute. Iran's expansionism was interfering in the internal affairs of Arab States and destabilizing the region, while its support of terrorist groups and illicit weapons transfers were exacerbating the crisis in Yemen, she said, assuring that only a political process could be successful.
The representative of Bahrain, also responding to remarks by Iran's delegate, said the entire world condemned Iran's expansionist actions. Iranian interference, aggression, support for terror and hatred were the cause of serious human rights violations. Iran's expansionist practices served to undermine peace and security, she added, calling on the international community to confront those threats to stability.
The representative of Pakistan, in response to India's delegate, said India was diverting attention from the plight of people in Jammu and Kashmir, desperate to conceal its actions in the region. Kashmiris will never be defeated, he said, and India must answer for its crimes. India's hegemonic desires and animosity towards Pakistan were its real enemy, he said, adding that the people of Kashmir would rise again.
Source: United Nations